Basic knowledge of safe operation of the hottest m

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Basic knowledge of safe operation of machinery

① what are the main causes and types of mechanical accident injuries

the injuries caused by mechanical accidents mainly include the following:

1. Injuries caused by rotating parts and components of mechanical equipment. For example, the gears, supporting pulleys, pulleys, chucks, shafts, light screws, lead screws, shaft couplings and other parts and components in machinery and equipment are rotating. The main forms of personal injury caused by rotating movement are strangulation and object strike injury

2. Injury caused by straight-line movement of parts and components of mechanical equipment. For example, the pressing parts of forging hammers, punches, sheet metal cutting machines, the head of shapers, the bed surface of gantry printing machines, bridge cranes, trolleys, and lifting mechanisms all move in a straight line. The injury accidents caused by the parts and components of the straight-line transport capacity mainly include crush injury, crush injury and crush injury

3. Injuries caused by knives. For example, turning tools on lathes, milling cutters on milling machines, drill bits on drilling machines, grinding wheels on grinders, saw blades on sawing machines, etc. are all tools used to process parts. The injuries caused by cutting tools in processing parts mainly include scalding, stabbing and cutting

4. after being added, conduct tensile test to know the damage caused by the parts of the sample fracture worker. Mechanical equipment may cause personal injury during the processing of parts. This kind of injury accidents mainly include: ① the processed parts are not fixed firmly and are thrown out to hurt people. For example, if the chuck of the lathe is not clamped firmly, the workpiece will be thrown out to hurt people during rotation. ② The processed parts may be crushed during hoisting and loading and unloading

5. Injury caused by electrical system. Most of the mechanical equipment used in the factory is powered by electric energy, so each mechanical equipment has its own electrical system. It mainly includes motor, distribution box, switch, button, local lighting, neutral (ground) and feeder wire, etc. Electric shock is the main injury of electrical system to people

6. Injury caused by hand tools

7. Other injuries. In addition to the above injuries, mechanical equipment may also cause other injuries. For example, some mechanical equipment in use is accompanied by strong light, high temperature, as well as the release of chemical energy, radiation energy, and dust toxic substances, which may cause harm to human body

② what are the basic safety requirements for mechanical equipment

the basic safety requirements of mechanical equipment are mainly:

1. The layout of mechanical equipment should be reasonable, which should be convenient for operators to load and unload workpieces, process and observe and remove sundries; At the same time, it should also facilitate the inspection and maintenance of maintenance personnel

2. The strength and rigidity of parts and components of mechanical equipment should meet the safety requirements, and the installation should be firm, and frequent failures are not allowed

3. According to relevant safety requirements, mechanical equipment must be equipped with reasonable, reliable safety devices that do not affect operation. For example:

(1) for parts and components that rotate, protective shields or protective baffles, protective railings and other safety protective devices should be installed to prevent stranding

(2) safety devices, such as overload limiter, travel limiter, safety valve, temperature relay, time breaker, etc., shall be installed for parts and components that can cause dangerous accidents, such as overpressure, overload, over temperature, over time, over travel, etc., so that when dangerous situations occur, the danger can be eliminated due to the role of the safety device to prevent accidents

(3) when people need to be warned or reminded of certain actions, signal devices or warning signs should be installed. Such as bell, horn, buzzer and other sound signals, as well as various light signals, various warning signs and so on, all belong to this kind of safety devices

(4) for some parts and components whose action sequence cannot be reversed, interlocking devices should be installed. That is, a certain action can only be carried out after the previous action is completed, otherwise it is impossible to act. This ensures that accidents will not occur due to the wrong sequence of actions

4. The electrical devices of mechanical equipment must meet the requirements of electrical safety, mainly including the following points:

(1) the power supply wire must be installed correctly, and there must be no damage or copper exposure

(2) the motor insulation should be good, and its wiring board should be protected by a cover plate to prevent direct contact

(3) switches, buttons, etc. shall be intact, and their live parts shall not be exposed

(4) there should be a good grounding or zero connection device, and the connected wires should be firm without disconnection

(5) 36V voltage should be used for local lighting, and 1lov or 220V voltage is forbidden

5. The operating handles and foot switches of mechanical equipment should meet the following requirements:

(1) important handles should have reliable positioning and locking devices. Coaxial handle shall have obvious length difference

(2) the hand wheel can be separated from the rotating shaft during maneuvering to prevent personnel from being injured by rotating with the shaft

(3) the foot switch should have a protective cover or be hidden in the concave part of the bed to prevent falling parts and components from falling on the switch and starting the mechanical equipment and hurting people

(6) the operation site of mechanical equipment should have a good environment, that is, the illumination should be appropriate, the humidity and temperature should be moderate, the noise and vibration should be small, and the parts and fixtures should be placed neatly. Because this can make the operator feel happy and work attentively

(7) each mechanical equipment shall formulate safety operation procedures and inspection, lubrication, maintenance and other systems according to its performance and operation sequence, so that the operator can comply with them

③ what are the common protective devices in the machining workshop? What is the main function

the common protective devices in the machining workshop include protective covers, protective baffles, protective railings and protection, etc. Protective devices shall be installed in the transmission belt of mechanical equipment, couplings of exposed gears close to the ground, rotating shafts, pulleys, flywheels, grinding wheels, electric saws and other dangerous parts. Safety devices shall be provided for the spinning parts of pressure machines such as presses, grinders, calenders, electric planers, plate shears, etc. The protective cover is used to isolate the exposed rotating parts, such as pulley, gear, sprocket, rotating shaft, etc. Protective baffle and protection have two forms: fixed and movable, which can isolate and block the splashing of metal chips. Protective railings are used to prevent high-altitude workers from falling or delimit safety areas. Generally speaking, the forms of protective devices mainly include fixed protective devices, interlocking protective devices and automatic protective devices.

④ what are the safety management regulations for mechanical equipment operators

to ensure that the mechanical equipment does not have industrial accidents, not only the mechanical equipment itself should meet the safety requirements, but also, more importantly, the operators should strictly abide by the safety operation procedures. Of course, the safety operation procedures of mechanical equipment vary according to their types, but the basic safety rules are:

1. Wear personal protective equipment correctly. What should be worn must be worn, and what should not be worn must not be worn. For example, female workers are required to wear protective hats during machining. If they don't, their hair may be twisted in. At the same time, it is required not to wear gloves. If you wear gloves, the rotating part of the machine may twist the gloves in and hurt your hands

2. Before operation, the mechanical equipment should be checked for safety, and it should be operated empty. It can be put into operation only after it is confirmed to be normal

3. Mechanical equipment shall also be subject to safety inspection as required during operation. In particular, check whether the fastened objects are loose due to vibration, so as to retighten them

4. it is strictly forbidden to operate the equipment with faults, and it must not be used to prevent accidents

5. The mechanical safety device must be used correctly according to the regulations, and it must not be removed from use

6. The cutting tools, fixtures and processed parts used by mechanical equipment must be firmly clamped and must not be loose

7. When the mechanical equipment is running, it is strictly prohibited to adjust it by hand; It is also not allowed to measure parts by hand, lubricate or clean sundries. If necessary, the mechanical equipment shall be shut down first

8. When the mechanical equipment is running, the operator shall not leave the work position, in case there is no one to deal with the problem

9. After the work is finished, turn off the switch, exit the cutting tools and workpieces from the working position, clean the working site, place the parts, fixtures, etc. neatly, and clean the mechanical equipment

⑤ how to prevent industrial accidents in metal cold working workshop

There are many kinds of machine tools in the metal cold working workshop. As long as the workplace is properly arranged, necessary protective devices and safety devices are set, and the safety operation regulations are strictly observed, industrial accidents can be effectively prevented

requirements for plane layout of machine tool:

1. Do not throw out parts or chips to hurt people

2. The operator will not be dazzled by direct sunlight

3. It is convenient to carry finished products, semi-finished products and clean metal chips

4. The workshop should be equipped with a safe passage to make personnel and vehicles run smoothly

protective device requirements:

1. Protective cover: isolate exposed rotating parts

2. Protective railings. Protective railings with a height of not less than 1m shall be set for machine tools that are easy to hurt people during operation and machine tools that are not operated on the ground

3. protective baffle: prevent wear debris, cutting debris and coolant splash

requirements for safety device:

1. Overload safety device: it will automatically disengage or stop when overloaded

2. Travel safety device: the moving parts can automatically stop or return to the predetermined position

3. sequential action interlock: before one action is completed, the next action cannot be carried out

4. accident interlocking device: in case of sudden power failure, the compensation mechanism can act immediately or the machine tool stops

5. braking device: avoid unloading the workpiece when the machine tool rotates; In case of a sudden accident, the machine tool can be stopped in time

⑥ what safety precautions should lathe workers pay attention to

the safety precautions that lathe workers should pay attention to are:

1. Wear tight protective clothing, and do not open the cuffs; Wear protective caps for long hair; Do not wear gloves during operation

2. Loading and unloading the chuck on the spindle of the machine tool should be carried out after the machine is shut down, and the power of the motor cannot be used to remove the chuck

3. It is best to use protective covers for the protruding parts of the chuck, dial and chicken heart clamp holding the workpiece to avoid stranding clothes or other parts of the body. If there is no protective cover, pay attention to leave and do not get too close during operation

4. When clamping the workpiece with the top, it should be noted that the top should be completely consistent with the center L, and the damaged or skewed top should not be used. The top and center hole should be wiped clean before use, and the top of the rear tailstock should be firmly jacking

5. When turning slender workpieces, in order to ensure safety, center frame or tool heel should be used, and the part growing out of the lathe should be marked

6。 When turning workpieces with irregular shape, balance blocks should be installed and trial turned before cutting

7. the tool should be firmly clamped, the protruding part of the tool head should not exceed 1.5 times the height of the tool body, the shape and size of the gasket under the tool should be consistent with the shape and size of the tool body, and the gasket should be as few and flat as possible

8. For the cut strip chips and spiral long chips, use hooks to remove them in time, and do not pull them by hand

9. in order to prevent people from being injured by chips, transparent baffles should be installed at appropriate positions

10. Except that the lathe is equipped with measuring tools that are automatically measured during operation, stop to measure the workpiece and move the tool holder to a safe position. 11. When grinding the workpiece surface with abrasive cloth

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